Mediterranean Diet and Longevity: Ikaria
At all times and for all people who value health and well-being, the search for the secret to a long and fulfilling life was an incredibly important and captivating challenge.
The Mediterranean diet and longevity are often synonymous and several scientific studies have indeed found a positive connection between the two.
The Mediterranean diet is inspired by the traditional dietary patterns of Mediterranean countries and typically includes high consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and olive oil, along with a moderate intake of fish, poultry, and dairy products, and low consumption of red meat and processed foods.
What is the reason for the enduring popularity of the Mediterranean diet? Maybe in its potential to unlock the secrets of longevity?
In this article, we’ll try to learn the connection between the Mediterranean diet and longevity, exploring the scientific evidence and cultural context that have made this diet a beacon of health for generations.
Research Confirming the Link Between the Mediterranean Diet and Longevity
Numerous observational studies have suggested that adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions. These studies have also indicated that individuals following a Mediterranean diet tend to have a longer lifespan compared to those who follow other dietary patterns.
For example, a large cohort study published in the British Medical Journal in 2018 examined the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and mortality in a population of over 10,000 middle-aged adults. The study found that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, as well as a lower risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
The study published in the British Medical Journal in 2018, examined the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and mortality in a large population of middle-aged adults.
Cohort studies are observational studies that follow a group of individuals over a specific period, collecting data on their dietary habits, lifestyle factors, and health outcomes. These studies aim to identify associations between certain factors and health outcomes.
In the case of this study, the researchers recruited a large cohort of middle-aged adults and assessed their adherence to a Mediterranean diet using validated dietary assessment tools or questionnaires. The participants were then followed for a certain number of years to monitor their health outcomes, including mortality rates.
The study has shown that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of mortality from various causes, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. It suggests that the Mediterranean diet's emphasis on plant-based foods, healthy fats (such as olive oil and nuts), and moderate consumption of animal products contributes to improved health outcomes.
It's important to note that cohort studies have their limitations. Despite efforts to control for confounding factors, there may still be other variables that influence the observed associations. Additionally, self-reported dietary assessments can introduce biases, and participants who adhere to a Mediterranean diet may also engage in other healthy lifestyle behaviors that contribute to their longevity.
To draw more definitive conclusions about the association between the Mediterranean diet and longevity, further research is needed, including randomized controlled trials that can provide stronger evidence. Nonetheless, the existing body of observational studies supports the notion that the Mediterranean diet is associated with improved health outcomes and increased longevity.
Another clinical study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2013 followed more than 7,000 participants at high cardiovascular risk for nearly five years. These individuals had risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, or a history of cardiovascular events. The participants were randomly assigned to different groups, each receiving a specific intervention or treatment.
During the study, the participants' health outcomes were monitored regularly. The primary objective was to assess the effect of the intervention on cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks or strokes, as well as mortality rates.
The study found that individuals assigned to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or mixed nuts had a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks or strokes, compared to those following a low-fat diet.
Below you will find an excerpt from the preface to the report of this study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine:
[...] Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. We conducted a randomized trial of this diet pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events.
[...] In a multicenter trial in Spain, we randomly assigned participants who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly individual and group educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary endpoint was the rate of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). Based on the results of an interim analysis, the trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 4.8 years.
[...] A total of 7447 persons were enrolled (age range, 55 to 80 years); 57% were women. The two Mediterranean diet groups had good adherence to the intervention, according to self-reported intake and biomarker analyses. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.92) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96) for the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (96 events) and the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (83 events), respectively, versus the control group (109 events). No diet-related adverse effects were reported.
[...] Among persons at high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events.
While these and other observational studies provide valuable evidence supporting the association between the Mediterranean diet and longevity, it's important to note that further research, including randomized controlled trials, is still needed to definitively confirm the role of the Mediterranean diet in promoting longevity. Nonetheless, the existing body of evidence suggests that adopting a Mediterranean-style eating pattern can contribute to a healthier lifestyle and potentially increase the chances of living a longer, healthier life.
Ikaria, the Mediterranean Longevity Island
In recent years, the remarkable longevity and exceptional health of the inhabitants of Ikaria, a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea, have captivated the attention of researchers and health enthusiasts alike.
Ikaria is associated with longevity as a significant portion of its population enjoys a long and healthy life well into their 90s and beyond.
Central to this phenomenon is the adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet, which incorporates a rich array of wholesome foods, combined with a lifestyle that fosters community, physical activity, and a relaxed approach to life.
Ikaria is a Greek island located in the Aegean Sea. It has gained attention in recent years due to its high number of inhabitants who live remarkably long and healthy lives. The longevity of Ikaria's residents has led to the island being referred to as a "blue zone," a term coined by author Dan Buettner to describe regions with exceptional health and longevity.
And here are some key aspects associated with the lifestyle and habits of the people of this Mediterranean longevity island:
- Diet: The traditional diet of Ikaria completely fits the classical Mediterranean diet. It emphasizes plant-based foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and olive oil. The diet also includes moderate amounts of fish, dairy products, and wine, while red meat and processed foods are consumed very rarely.
- Physical activity: The lifestyle of Ikaria is characterized by physical activity. The island's hilly terrain encourages walking, and many residents engage in daily activities such as gardening, farming, or tending to their vineyards. Regular physical activity has been linked to various health benefits, including improved cardiovascular health and longevity.
- Social connections: Ikaria has a strong sense of community, and social connections play a significant role in the lives of its inhabitants. Extended families often live together or nearby, and people engage in regular social interactions, such as communal meals and gatherings. Strong social support networks have been associated with improved well-being and longevity.
- Stress reduction: The relaxed pace of life on Ikaria contributes to stress reduction. Islanders often prioritize leisure time, take afternoon naps, and maintain a more laid-back approach to daily routines. Lower levels of chronic stress may have a positive impact on overall health and longevity. Ikaria's inhabitants place less importance on stressors commonly associated with modern societies. This mindset, combined with a relaxed lifestyle and a focus on enjoying life, contributes to better overall health.
- Mediterranean climate: The favorable climate of Ikaria allows for an outdoor lifestyle with abundant sunshine and fresh air. This climate contributes to an active lifestyle and provides opportunities for outdoor activities and cultivation of the land.
The unique combination of a healthy diet, physical activity, social connections, stress reduction, and a favorable environment are believed to contribute to the longevity of Ikaria's inhabitants. However, it's crucial to remember that individual lifestyle choices and genetic factors also play significant roles in determining health outcomes and lifespan.
Yes, it's worth considering that genetic factors have been widely studied in the context of longevity and healthy aging. There is evidence to suggest that genetics plays an important role in an individual's predisposition to their overall lifespan.
Some genetic variations, such as those related to DNA repair mechanisms, inflammation, or cellular senescence, have been associated with longevity and a lower risk of age-related diseases in certain populations.
It should also be noted that island populations tend to be less genetically diverse than continental populations. Note also that among the five regions of the Blue Zone, you will find three islands and one peninsula. While this is nothing more than an observation, there is no reason not to consider genetics as one of the most important factors influencing longevity.
Ikarian Mediterranean Diet as Possible Reason for Their Longevity
The Ikarian Mediterranean diet refers to the traditional dietary patterns and lifestyle habits of the people living on the island, which has gained attention due to the reputation of its residents for their longevity and good health.
The Ikaria diet is considered a variation of the Mediterranean diet, which is known for its emphasis on whole foods, fresh produce, and a high intake of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and olive oil. Here are some key features of the Ikaria diet:
- Plant-based foods: The Ikaria diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and legumes. These foods provide a rich source of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants.
- Olive oil: Like the Mediterranean diet, the Ikaria diet includes the liberal use of extra virgin olive oil as the primary source of dietary monounsaturated fats, which are considered heart-healthy.
- Fish and seafood: Fish and seafood are commonly consumed in the Ikaria diet. These sources of lean protein provide essential omega-3 fatty acids, which are beneficial for heart health.
- Limited meat consumption: Red meat is consumed in moderation in the Ikaria diet, while poultry and dairy products are consumed in smaller amounts.
- Wild greens and herbs: The Ikarian diet often includes a variety of wild greens and herbs, which are known for their high nutrient content and antioxidant properties. These include dandelion greens, fennel, oregano, rosemary, and thyme. Also, an important component of the diet of the inhabitants of the island is herbal teas such as Greek mountain tea, mint, and sage.
- Moderate alcohol consumption: Moderate consumption of red wine is a part of the Ikarian Mediterranean diet. Red wine is believed to have health benefits due to its antioxidant content.
It is important to note that while the Ikaria diet is associated with the longevity and good health of the Ikarian people, the diet itself is just one aspect of their overall lifestyle. Genetics, physical activity, social connections, and other environmental factors likely play a role in their health outcomes as well.
What Exactly Do We Know About the Effect of the Mediterranean Diet on the Longevity of the Inhabitants of Ikaria?
Many of us are not accustomed to believing (and rightly so!) everything that is written on blogs. Therefore, a reasonable question arises: are there any studies?
Yes, there have been studies conducted on the longevity of Ikaria's inhabitants. These studies aimed to investigate the factors contributing to the exceptional health and long life expectancy observed on the island. Here are they:
- The Ikaria Study: This study, published in 2009 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, examined the lifestyle and health characteristics of the elderly population of Ikaria. The researchers found that Ikaria had a higher percentage of people reaching the age of 90 or older compared to other parts of Greece. The study highlighted the importance of the Mediterranean diet, physical activity, and strong social connections as factors contributing to longevity on the island.
- The Ikaria Longevity Study: In 2011, the University of Athens initiated a study called The Ikaria Longevity Study to investigate the lifestyle and genetic factors associated with the long lifespan of Ikaria's inhabitants. The researchers collected data on the diet, physical activity, genetics, and other lifestyle factors of the island's residents. The study aimed to identify the specific elements that contribute to their longevity.
- The BLUE ZONES Project: The Ikaria Blue Zone is part of a larger project called The Blue Zones, initiated by National Geographic and Dan Buettner. The project identified regions worldwide with high longevity and studied the lifestyle factors contributing to their exceptional health. Ikaria was one of the original Blue Zones studied, and the project aimed to understand the dietary, social, and cultural practices that promote longevity on the island.
These studies and projects, among others, have shed light on the lifestyle habits and factors associated with longevity among the inhabitants of Ikaria. While each study may have focused on different aspects, they generally emphasize the importance of the Mediterranean diet, physical activity, social connections, and other lifestyle factors in promoting health and longevity.
You can also read some books on the subject:
- "Ikaria: Lessons on Food, Life, and Longevity from the Greek Island Where People Forget to Die" by Diane Kochilas: This book explores the lifestyle, diet, and traditions of Ikaria, focusing on its reputation as a "blue zone" of longevity. Diane Kochilas, a renowned Greek-American chef and author, delves into the island's culinary culture, offering recipes, anecdotes, and insights into the Ikarian way of life. BUY THIS BOOK ON AMAZON
- "The Blue Zones” by Dan Buettner: Although not exclusively about Ikaria, this book by Dan Buettner, who coined the term "blue zones," features a chapter dedicated to Ikaria. It examines the island's exceptional longevity and explores the lifestyle practices, diet, and social connections of its inhabitants. The book provides insights into the factors that contribute to the island's reputation for longevity. BUY THIS BOOK ON AMAZON
These resources can offer glimpses into the unique aspects of Ikaria's Mediterranean diet and longevity.
Some Kind of Conclusion
The story of Ikaria and its inhabitants offers valuable insights into the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and longevity.
We know that the Mediterranean diet is more than just a collection of nutritious foods; it embodies a way of life that promotes longevity and vitality. The diet serves as a foundation for their exceptional health and longevity, however, it is crucial to recognize that it is not merely about the food consumed but also the broader lifestyle practices that shape their well-being.
The strong sense of community, active engagement with nature, and a mindset that prioritizes relaxation and social connections all play integral roles in fostering a long and healthy life in Ikaria.
By adopting elements of the Mediterranean diet and incorporating the principles of community, physical activity, and stress reduction into our lives, we can strive to enhance our health and potentially extend our years of vitality.